Reducing ewe mortality during lambing is a high priority for the sheep industry to address both animal welfare and productivity imperatives. Most RD&E has focused on improving ewe nutrition during pregnancy, but further reductions in ewe wastage requires a more thorough understanding of the precise causes of ewe mortality under improved management. This project will fill this knowledge gap by quantifying the magnitude of non-Merino ewe mortality over lambing and the primary cause. The project will focus on mixed farming systems and include Mediterranean as well as winter rainfall areas. The project will retain and build capacity in animal health and provide industry with an evidence-based approach to improving productivity and animal welfare outcomes.